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Some combinations in document structures forbidden by W3C XML Schema can be described by RELAX NG.Even though RELAX NG seems to be technically superior to W3C XML Schema, support by software vendors and XML developers is uncertain now that W3C XML Schema is a Recommendation. It also documents the development of the major schema language families -- DTDs, W3C XML Schema, and RELAX NG -- and compares the features of DTDs, W3C XML Schema, RELAX NG, Schematron, and Examplotron. • A Short History of XML Schema Languages • Our Sample Application • DTDs • W3C XML Schema Definition Language • Examplotron • Mix and Match • Comparisons • References This article explains what an XML schema language is and which features the different schema languages possess.Inherited from SGML, the XML DTD is the most widely deployed means of defining an XML schema.
We can differentiate between at least four levels of validation enabled by schema languages: Validating markup and datatypes are the most powerful (or most dangerous, since they often imply a kind of modeling which limits diversity of the markup and datatypes).
RELAX NG appears to be closer to a description of the instance documents in ordinary English and simpler than W3C XML Schema, to which it might become a serious alternative.
Many constraints, especially those which are on the fringe of non-deterministic models, can be expressed by RELAX NG and not by W3C XML Schema.
Even though a DTD is not mandatory for an application to read and understand a XML document, many developers recommend writing DTDs for your XML applications.
The W3C XML Schema Working Group received many proposals contributed as notes: Nontypical of schema languages, Schematron (SCH) was first proposed in September 1999 by Rick Jelliffe of the Academia Sinica Computing Centre and defines validation rules using XPath expressions.
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The list which I propose below is not exhaustive, and it includes only the major proposals that have influenced the schema languages covered in this article.